Monitoring COVID-19 Community Levels to information COVID-19 prevention efforts. Persons can use details about the present degree of COVID-19 affect on their neighborhood to resolve which prevention behaviors to make use of and when (always or at particular instances), primarily based on their very own danger for extreme sickness and that of members of their family, their danger tolerance, and setting-specific elements. CDC’s COVID-19 Community Levels replicate the present impact of COVID-19 on communities and determine geographic areas which may expertise will increase in extreme COVID-19–associated outcomes, primarily based on hospitalization charges, hospital mattress occupancy, and COVID-19 incidence throughout the previous interval*** (1). Prevention suggestions primarily based on COVID-19 Community Levels have the specific objectives of decreasing medically important sickness and limiting pressure on the well being care system. At all COVID-19 Community Levels (low, medium, and excessive), suggestions emphasize staying updated with vaccination, bettering air flow, testing individuals who’re symptomatic and those that have been uncovered, and isolating contaminated individuals. At the medium COVID-19 Community Level, beneficial methods embrace including protections for individuals who’re at excessive danger for extreme sickness (e.g., use of masks or respirators that present the next degree of wearer safety). At the excessive COVID-19 Community Level, further suggestions focus on all individuals sporting masks indoors in public and additional rising safety to populations at excessive danger.††† As SARS-CoV-2 continues to flow into, modifications in COVID-19 Community Levels for a jurisdiction assist sign when use of some prevention methods needs to be discontinued or elevated, primarily based on a person particular person’s degree of danger for extreme sickness or that of their family or social contacts. The COVID-19 Community Levels present a broad framework for public well being officers and jurisdictions to make use of and adapt as wanted primarily based on native context by combining native info to evaluate the want for public well being interventions.
Nonpharmaceutical interventions. Implementation of a number of prevention methods helps shield particular person individuals and communities from SARS-CoV-2 publicity and scale back danger for medically important sickness and dying by decreasing danger for an infection (Table). Implementation of a number of nonpharmaceutical preventive interventions can complement use of vaccines and therapeutics, particularly as COVID-19 Community Levels enhance and amongst individuals at excessive danger for extreme sickness. CDC’s COVID-19 prevention suggestions not differentiate primarily based on an individual’s vaccination standing as a result of breakthrough infections happen, although they’re usually gentle (16), and individuals who’ve had COVID-19 however should not vaccinated have a point of safety towards extreme sickness from their earlier an infection (17). In addition to methods beneficial in any respect COVID-19 Community Levels, schooling and messaging to assist particular person individuals perceive their danger for medically important sickness enhances suggestions for prevention methods primarily based on danger.
Testing for present an infection. Diagnostic testing can determine infections early in order that contaminated individuals can take motion to cut back their danger for transmitting virus and obtain therapy, if clinically indicated, to cut back their danger for extreme sickness and dying. All individuals ought to search testing for lively an infection when they’re symptomatic or if they’ve a recognized or suspected publicity to somebody with COVID-19. When contemplating whether or not and the place to implement screening testing of asymptomatic individuals with no recognized publicity, public well being officers would possibly contemplate prioritizing high-risk congregate settings, corresponding to long-term care services, homeless shelters, and correctional services, and office settings that embrace congregate housing with restricted entry to medical care.§§§ In these varieties of high-risk congregate settings, screening testing would possibly complement diagnostic testing of symptomatic individuals by figuring out asymptomatic contaminated individuals (18,19). When carried out, screening testing methods ought to embrace all individuals, irrespective of vaccination standing. Screening testing may not be cost-effective usually neighborhood settings, particularly if COVID-19 prevalence is low (20,21).
Isolation. Symptomatic or contaminated individuals ought to isolate promptly, and contaminated individuals ought to stay in isolation for ≥5 days and put on a well-fitting and high-quality masks or respirator in the event that they should be round others. Infected individuals might finish isolation after 5 days, solely when they’re with out a fever for ≥24 hours with out the use of remedy and all different signs have improved, and they need to proceed to put on a masks or respirator round others at dwelling and in public via day 10¶¶¶ (Figure) (22,23). Persons who’ve entry to antigen exams and who select to make use of testing to find out once they can discontinue masking ought to wait to take the first check till no less than day 6 and they’re with out a fever for ≥24 hours with out the use of fever-reducing remedy and all different signs have improved. Use of two antigen exams with ≥48 hours between exams offers extra dependable info as a result of of improved check sensitivity (24). Two consecutive check outcomes should be destructive for individuals to discontinue masking. If both check result’s constructive, individuals ought to proceed to put on a masks round others and proceed testing each 48 hours till they’ve two sequential destructive outcomes.****
Managing SARS-CoV-2 exposures. CDC now recommends case investigation and contact tracing solely in well being care settings and sure high-risk congregate settings.†††† In all different circumstances, public well being efforts can focus on case notification and provision of info and sources to uncovered individuals about entry to testing. Persons who’ve had latest confirmed or suspected publicity to an contaminated particular person ought to put on a masks for 10 days round others when indoors in public and ought to obtain testing ≥5 days after publicity (or sooner, if they’re symptomatic), irrespective of their vaccination standing.§§§§ In mild of excessive inhabitants ranges of anti–SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence (7,16), and to restrict social and financial impacts, quarantine of uncovered individuals is not beneficial, regardless of vaccination standing.